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˝  to Broad Ecosystems main page ˝ explanation of terms ˝ Broad ecosystems: our text compared to Qld Herbarium text ˝ Land zone description ˝

Explanation of terms used in the Broad Ecosystems documents:

e.g.

 

1 rainforest, scrubs

36 seasonally very dry rainforest

dry deciduous evergreen (semi-evergreen) to deciduous microphyll semi-open to open thicket +/- closed +/- deciduous mid-high or
Hoop Pine emergents +/- vines and seasonally dry to very dry

EIU C 9.5.2 Dry vine forest on deep red earths on Tertiary sandstone plateaus

9.5.2 C near level sands 1 36

LANDFORM flat; VEG STRUCTURE & FLORISTICS Semi-evergreen vine thicket; GEOLOGY SOIL TQr

 

 

The above extract can be read without any interpretation really…. odd numbers or jargon can be ignored… they link to statewide systems for professional use… but for those risking confusion:

Broad Vegetation Types of Qld (Qld Herbarium) statewide broadest veg type (8 taxa): number ="1", brief descr = "rainforest, scrubs"

 

Note the word "ecosystems" is more correct than "vegetation types" as we are thinking in terms of all biodiversity not just plants)

 

Qld Herbarium’s "more detailed Broad Groups" have been extensively adapted and modified for local use to 28 taxa click here for an overview of vegetation type description derivations

More detailed Broad Ecosystem Group Number="36", name of the more detailed broad group is "seasonally very dry rainforest" followed by it’s general description "dry deciduous evergreen (semi-evergreen) to deciduous microphyll semi-open to open thicket +/- closed +/- deciduous mid-high or Hoop Pine emergents +/- vines and seasonally dry to very dry"

"EIU" refers to the biogregion "Einasleigh Uplands" (other bioregions in area BBN is brigalow Belt North, WT is wet tropics)

The next type in bold refers to the legal regional ecosystems as defined in the act’s regulations.

"C 9.5.2" the "C" part means this regional ecosystem has conservation status "Of Concern"

 

Note.. there are two entirely different sets of threatened ecosystem definitions and both are mapped by the Queensland Herbarium. There is a huge difference between the definitions. As yet we have not explained either system.

 

The "9.5.2" part is the legal regional ecosystem number where the "9" = the bioregion number, "5" = the land zone number.

"Dry vine forest on deep red earths on Tertiary sandstone plateaus" is the bioregion wide accepted name of the legally correct regional ecosystem. The local description underneath often provides more useful information.

The smaller text "9.5.2 C" underneath the larger text represents the regional ecosystem map legend code and often differs from the legal number. The "c" here is basically a repeat of the "C" above, but often it will be written as "~c" indicates while not "of concern" legally this part of the larger legal entity was considered at risk at least by some.

"near level sands" is the land zone name (of land zone "5"). Click here for more detail on landzones

"LANDFORM flat; VEG STRUCTURE & FLORISTICS Semi-evergreen vine thicket; GEOLOGY SOIL TQr" is the locally produced legend tag for the official regional ecosystem ecosystem map that is often far more complete than the legal bioregion wide tag.

At present we do not present a list of the geology/soil codes and their meanings

 

Note "Land Form" is based on Australian Soil and Land Survey field Handbook, second edition.

 

 

The 28 Broad Vegetation Groupings that give the best wild asset overview of the Townsville Region compared with Herbarium structures.

Intended as a standard for educational institutions, enthusiasts, public ecosystem displays, plant CD’s and natural asset managers.

Derived from the Qld. Herbarium’s "Broad Groups of Queensland" guidelines. That document is not considered core business for the Qld. Herbarium and is certainly not something to apply rigorously. In other words documents like this have to be adapted for regional use and here is our adaptation.

Adaptations like this only emerge from the finely detailed study of ecosystems. But don't worry about the detail… what really counts is "what are the broad vegetation bodies that most enthusiasts or professionals in allied fields will with a little education and effort be able to readily recognise throughout our region. The purpose is to provide a very useful broad understanding of all our region's biodiversity and how it logically fits into the regional landscape in terms of microclimate, topography, altitude, distance inland, rainfall, soils. Conservation status can be delivered in the same way. All this can now readily be communicated on maps.

Simple consistent and clear communication to the general public and enthusiasts can emerge from this study if adopted as a regional standard. Discussions with authorities should press for it's extension to Bowen, up to Ingham and out to Pentland.

While these are derived for the Townsville 1:250,000 map sheet, they will apply far more broadly with only some modifications. However at this early stage in Queensland's regional ecosystem mapping, these broad entities will be harder to map on adjacent sheets where the mapping may not be consistent with Russell Cumming's far more detailed work. Russell has mapped other nearby map sheets and these will certainly help make broader definitions more technically accurate. Those other areas could be similarly mapped to communicate the same logical fit into the landscape.

An entirely different but most important outcome from this work is specific site interpretation. These same mapped broad entities can be used to describe specific sites. E.g. at the National Park picnic ground at Alligator Creek can be found three entities, riverine woodland or forest, Poplar Gum plains and dry rainforest. From this one site maps can readily show the extent of these ecosystems across our region and in return these same maps show likely site characteristics.. like microclimate, topography, altitude, distance inland, rainfall, soils. Site may deviate from the normal and this can be important to know or just interesting.

With the value of this work demonstrated, we can probably over decades as sheets get revised, ask the Queensland Herbarium to broaden this mapping work to ensure consistent coverage everywhere.

We aim to extend the general public are already familiar with "evergreen rainforests", "wetlands" and "mangrove" classifications and we aim to extend this knowledge to a few of the other 24 groups. Conservation priority also.

Understanding breeds respect.

We especially believe that the new Eucalypt dominated broad groups that emerged so clearly will contribute very practically towards a regional overview. These emerged from our analysis of all the eucalypt species listed in the Eucalypt dominated "VLU" descriptions by Russell Cumming (Qld. Herbarium).

Broad

Veg

No

Proposed Broadest Group names for Townsville

Broad Groups of Qld names (Qld Herbarium’s)

Proposed Broad Detail groups names for Townsville

Proposed Broad Detail group descriptions for Townsville, loosely based as far as possible on the Qld Herbarium’s descriptive text but more specific to the Townsville Region

Broad Groups of Queensland Qld. Herbarium descriptive text

1

rainforest, scrubs

Rainforest, Scrubs

seasonally very dry rainforest

dry deciduous evergreen (semi-evergreen) to deciduous microphyll semi-open to open thicket +/- closed +/- deciduous mid-high or Hoop Pine emergents +/- vines and seasonally dry to very dry

Semi-evergreen to deciduous microphyll vine thicket on sediments, metasediments and volcanics.

1

rainforest, scrubs

Rainforest, Scrubs

semi-evergreen rainforest on coastal dunes

dry deciduous evergreen microphyll low closed forest or thicket on coastal sand masses +/- Eucalypt or Melaleuca emergents +/- vines and seasonally dry to moderately dry

Rainforest: Notophyll and notophyll feather palm vine forest (often with sclerophyll and / or Araucarian emergents) on coastal sandmasses

1

rainforest, scrubs

Rainforest, Scrubs

semi-evergreen rainforest

dry deciduous evergreen notophyll / microphyll and microphyll usually mid-high closed forests +/- vines +/-Eucalypt or Hoop Pine emergents and seasonally dry to moderately dry

Araucarian notophyll / microphyll and microphyll vine forests, occasionally with Eucalypt emergents, on fine-grained sediments, metasediments and basic to intermediate (to acid) volcanics.

1

rainforest, scrubs

Rainforest, Scrubs

lowland/lower slopes wetter vine forest; +/- Black Bean (incorporate this into evergreen rainforest?)

lowland (warm) complex notophyll vine forest and notophyll vine forest +/- Black Bean

Rainforest: Lowland (warm) complex notophyll vine forest and Araucarian notophyll vine forest on basic volcanics.

1

rainforest, scrubs

Rainforest, Scrubs

evergreen rainforest

simple notophyl tall closed vine forest of the permanently damp highlands uplands and alluvial riparian lowlands +/- patchy closely related evergreen rainforest types +/- vines

Rainforest: Upland (cool) complex notophyll vine forest and microphyll fern forest to thicket.

1

rainforest, scrubs

Rainforest, Scrubs

NA to townsville

Rainforest: Notophyll and notophyll feather palm vine forest in alluvia and in moist situations on metasediments and intermediate/ acid volcanics.

1

rainforest, scrubs

Rainforest, Scrubs

NA to Townsville

Complex mesophyll to notophyll vine forests on lowlands and lower slopes (includes semi-deciduous mesophyll/ notophyll/microphyll vine forest)

2

Eucalypt dominated

Eucalypt open forests/woodlands

open cliffs

open cliffs, +/- Lophostemon confertus, +/- E. exserta

New

2

Eucalypt dominated

Eucalypt open forests/woodlands

riverine open forest on coastal plains

Eucalyptus tereticornis Melaleuca spp. Casuarina cunninhamiana riparian woodland or open forest

New

2

Eucalypt dominated

Eucalypt open forests/woodlands

Poplar Gum woodland on plains and slopes

E. platyphylla, C.clarkesoniana woodland (+/- open) usually with narrow leaved Ironbark and C. dallachyana

New

2

Eucalypt dominated

Eucalypt open forests/woodlands

Ironbark only woodland

narrow leaved Ironbark open woodland usually with C. dallachyana

New

2

Eucalypt dominated

Eucalypt open forests/woodlands

Eucalypt hilly woodland

E. exserta, shirleyi, peltata, acmenoides, citriodora, woodland (+/- open) to open forest usually with narrow leaved Ironbark and C. dallachyana on the ranges of the coastal plains +/- E. leichhardtii. More inland this grades into E. peltate and shirleyi woodland

New

2

Eucalypt dominated

Eucalypt open forests/woodlands

Eucalypt coastal ranges open forest

Corymbia intermedia, E. tereticornis, Syncarpia glomulifera open forest on coastal ranges

New

2

Eucalypt dominated

Eucalypt open forests/woodlands

She-oak/Turpentine uplands open forest

Allocasuarina torulosa Corymbia intermedia, Syncarpia glomulifera open forest in uplands and highlands +/- sparse understorey

Moist open- forests to tall open- forests on coastal sands and sub-coastal sandstones and basalts. Mostly dominated by Eucalyptus pilularis but may include other species such as E. microcorys, E. siderophloia, E. montivaga, Corymbia trachyphloia as sub- dominants. Typically there is a low tree layer of Allocasuarina spp. Grasses are poorly represented in the understorey, apart from on basalts.

2

Eucalypt dominated

Eucalypt open forests/woodlands

tall highland Eucalypt open forest

tall to very tall open-forest on permanently damp highlands and uplands +/- E. grandis +/- Syncarpia glomulifera +/- Eucalyptus resinifera +/- well developed understorey with sclerophyllous and/or rainforest species

Wet tall open-forest on uplands and alluvia

2

Eucalypt dominated

Eucalypt open forests/woodlands

riverine woodland on inland plains

Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. coolabah, E. tereticornis, Melaleuca western plains riparian

New

2

Eucalypt dominated

Eucalypt open forests/woodlands

Box (E. persistens) woodland

Eucalyptus persistens woodland (+/- open, usually dominates alone) on inland plains and foothills

New

2

Eucalypt dominated

Eucalypt open forests/woodlands

Red Bloodwood woodland

Corymbia erythrophloia Ironbark woodland (+/- open) usually with narrow leaved Ironbark and C. dallachyana on inland plains and foothills

New

2

Eucalypt dominated

Eucalypt open forests/woodlands

Reid River Box inland plains woodland

E. brownii plains woodland (+/- open)

New

2

Eucalypt dominated

Eucalypt open forests/woodlands

Queensland Yellowjacket woodlands

Eucalyptus similis, C. brachycarpa, C. setosa, C. leichardtii woodlands to open-woodlands on sand sheets

Eucalyptus similis, C. brachycarpa, C. setosa, C. leichardtii woodlands to open-woodlands on sand sheets

2

Eucalypt dominated

Eucalypt open forests/woodlands

Miscellaneous Eucalypts

Miscellaneous, E. setosa vlu and E cambageana vlu

New temporary

2

Eucalypt dominated

Eucalypt open forests/woodlands

NA to Townsville

open forest and woodlands drainage lines (+/- alluvial plains)

Eucalyptus dominated open-forest and woodlands drainage lines and alluvial plains.

2

Eucalypt dominated

Eucalypt open forests/woodlands

NA to Townsville

dry woodlands (+/- open) out west on alluvial soils

Dry woodlands to open- woodlands in western areas on alluvium and associated flats.

2

Eucalypt dominated

Eucalypt open forests/woodlands

NA to Townsville

hilly dry woodlands (+/- open) on shallow soils

Dry woodlands to open-woodlands, mostly on shallow soils in hilly terrain (most extensive on sandstone)

2

Eucalypt dominated

Eucalypt open forests/woodlands

NA to Townsville

Low woodland with Acacia julifera +/- Eucalyptus drepanophylla

2

Eucalypt dominated

Eucalypt open forests/woodlands

NA to Townsville

hilly dry woodlands (+/- open) usually on coarse soils

Dry woodlands, often on coarse sandy soil, on undulating to hilly terrain.

2

Eucalypt dominated

Eucalypt open forests/woodlands

NA to Townsville

Eucalypt woodlands and open-forests occurring on granite traprock. Dominant species include E. andrewsii, E. campanulata, E. calignosa, E. dealbata etc.

2

Eucalypt dominated

Eucalypt open forests/woodlands

NA to Townsville

Moist to dry open- forests to woodlands in coastal areas

2

Eucalypt dominated

Eucalypt open forests/woodlands

NA to Townsville

Moist to dry open- forests to woodlands on coastal lowlands and ranges

2

Eucalypt dominated

Eucalypt open forests/woodlands

NA to Townsville

Woodlands and tall woodlands dominated by Eucalyptus tetrodonta

2

Eucalypt dominated

Eucalypt open forests/woodlands

NA to Townsville

Dry woodlands to open- woodlands on undulating to low hilly terrain. Mostly dominated by Corymbia citriodora, but including other species such as Eucalyptus crebra, E. acmenoides, E. fibrosa subsp. fibrosa, Angophora leiocarpa and C. trachyphloia. The understorey may be grassy or heathy.

3

Acacia dominated

Acacia dominated forests woodlands and shrublands

Brigalow, Belah forest

Acacia harpophylla, Casuarina cristata open- forests to woodlands on heavy clay soils. Includes areas co-dominated with A. camabgei and/or emergent eucalypts.

Acacia harpophylla, Casuarina cristata open- forests to woodlands on heavy clay soils. Includes areas co-dominated with A. camabgei and/or emergent eucalypts.

3

Acacia dominated

Acacia dominated forests woodlands and shrublands

Gidgee/Blackwood woodland

Acacia cambagei/A. georginae/A. argyrodendron dominated woodland and closed woodland

Acacia cambagei/A. georginae/A. argyrodendron dominated associations (A. tephrina?)

3

Acacia dominated

Acacia dominated forests woodlands and shrublands

Lancewood/Bendee woodland

Acacia spp. on residuals. Species include A. stowardii, A. shirleyi, A. microsperma, A. catenulata, Acacia rhodoxylon woodland and closed woodland

Acacia spp. on residuals. Species include A. stowardii, A. shirleyi, A. microsperma, A. catenulata, Acacia rhodoxylon

3

Acacia dominated

Acacia dominated forests woodlands and shrublands

Mulga woodland

Acacia aneura dominated associations on red earth plains, sandplains or residuals.

Acacia aneura dominated associations on red earth plains, sandplains or residuals.

3

Acacia dominated

Acacia dominated forests woodlands and shrublands

NA to Townsville

Woodland with Acacia burdekenensis

4

grassland (+/- very open woodland)

Tussock grassland, forbland

grassland and very open woodland

Tussock and closed-tussock grasslands (various species) +/- very open woodland

Tussock and closed-tussock grasslands (various species)

5

Spinafex grassland

Spinafex grassland and low open-woodlands with spinafex understorey

NA to Townsville

Triodia basedowii / Zygochloa paradoxa associations on dunefields or sandplains.

5

Spinafex grassland

Spinafex grassland and low open-woodlands with spinafex understorey

NA to Townsville

Eucalyptus spp. low open-woodlands and Triodia spp. dominated associations (Mt Isa area)

6

wetlands or Melaleuca dominated

Wetlands (sedgelands, melaleuca, lakes)

wetlands and fringing woodlands

Vegetation of permanent lakes and swamps, as well as ephemeral lakes, claypans and swamps. Includes fringing woodlands and shrublands

Vegetation of permanent lakes and swamps, as well as ephemeral lakes, claypans and swamps. Includes fringing woodlands and shrublands

6

wetlands or Melaleuca dominated

Wetlands (sedgelands, melaleuca, lakes)

Melaleuca low woodland

Low woodlands and low open-woodlands of Melaleuca spp. predominantly on depositional plains in the tropical north +/- open

Low woodlands and low open-woodlands of Melaleuca spp. predominantly on depositional plains in the tropical north

6

wetlands or Melaleuca dominated

Wetlands (sedgelands, melaleuca, lakes)

coastal seasonally inundated lowland Melaleuca open woodland

Seasonally inundated open-forests and woodlands of lowland coastal areas. Dominated by Melaleuca spp.

Seasonally inundated open-forests and woodlands of lowland coastal areas. Dominated by Melaleuca spp.

7

shrubland and heathland

heathland (also Callitris woodland)

low woodlands and heathlands

Open to closed scrub, low woodlands, shrublands, heathlands and sedgelands in low altitude coastal locations and montane locations

Open to closed scrub, low woodlands, shrublands, heathlands and sedgelands in low altitude coastal locations and montane locations

7

shrubland and heathland

heathland (also Callitris woodland)

NA to Townsville

Callitris glaucaphylla dominated associations.

8

coastal communities

Coastal communities

Mangroves and saltmarshes

Mangroves and saltpans or samphire flats +/- grasses

Mangroves and saltmarshes

8

coastal communities

Coastal communities

Sand blows, rock pavements, sand islands

coastal sand blows, rock pavements, sand islands

Sand blows, rock pavements, sand islands

8

coastal communities

Coastal communities

coastal dune dry woodlands (+/- grassy)

Dry woodlands, primarily on coastal sandplains and dunes, especially C. tessellaris, Melaleuca dealbata +/- grassy

Dry woodlands, primarily on coastal sandplains and dunes

8

coastal communities

Coastal communities

NA to Townsville

Open- forests to open- woodlands in coastal locations. Dominated by non-eucalypt species such as Casuarina spp., Allocasuarina spp., Callitris spp., Lophostemon suaveolens, Asteromyrtus spp., Neofabricea myrtifolia.

9

not sure

not sure

not sure

not sure, Casuarina leuhmanii and separately Acacia burdekinensis

New Temporary

 

 

 

 

 

Derivation of Land Zone description

 

 

LZNo

Land Zone Name as used by the Qld. Herbarium

Proposed Land Zone Name for use in Townsville

Land Zone example near Townsville

Proposed Land Zone Description for use in Townsville

Land Zone Full Description as used by the Queensland Herbarium

9

undulating fine textured sedimentary rock & soils

not used here

usually undulating landscapes on fine grained sedimentary rock (largely undeformed) with fine textured moderately fertile soils

Cainozoic to Proterozoic consolidated, fine-grained sediments with little or no deformation. Siltstones, mudstones, shales, calcaroeus sediments and lithic sandstones are typical rock types although minor interbedded volcanics may occur. Usually undulating landscapes with fine textured soils of moderate to high fertility. Excludes areas of duricrust (land zone 7).

2

dunes and beaches

dunes and beaches

coastal dunes, sandy beaches and dune swamps

Quaternary coastal dunes and beaches. Includes associated degraded dunes, sand plains, swales, dune lakes and swamps, as well as coral and sand cays. Soils are predominantly siliceous or calcareous sands, podzols or peats.

1

tidally inundated heavy soils

tidally inundated heavy soils

heavy soils that are occasionally inundated by sea or brackish water.

Quaternary marine deposits, subject to periodic inundation by saline or brackish marine waters. Includes mangroves, salt pans and offshore tidal flats. Soils are predominantly saline muds or solonchaks.

3

plains

plains

Townsville plain, inland plains

alluvial floodplains and piedmont fans with swamps and channels

Cainozoic alluvial plains and piedmont fans. Includes terraces, levees, swamps, and channels of Quaternary alluvium and palaeo-estuarine deposits, and older floodplain complexes and piedmont fans with palaeo-stream channels. Also includes inland freshwater lakes and associated dune systems. Does not include talus slopes. Soils include deep cracking clays, loams, earths, and poorly developed alluvial soils.

12

Granite and acid volcanic ranges and lowlands, coarser soils

Granite and acid volcanic ranges

Almost all of Townsville’s Ranges

Ranges, hills and lowlands, granite and acid volcanic rocks, low fertility soils (texture contrasting)

Mezozoic to Proterozoic igneous rocks. Predominately granitoids and intermediate to acid terrestrial volcanics, forming ranges, hills and lowlands with lithosols and texture contrast soils of usually low fertility. Includes granites, granodiorites, andesites and rhyolites, as well as minor areas of interbedded sediments and basic rock types such as gabbros. Excludes serpentinites (land zone 11).

11

Metamorphosed ranges and lowlands, finer soils.

Metamorphosed ranges

Reid River, Calcium

Ranges, hills and lowlands, strongly deformed and metamorphosed sediments and volcanics, low to moderate fertility soils (low texture contrast)

Mezozoic to Proterozoic moderately to strongly deformed and metomorphosed sediments and interbedded volcanics. Ranges, hills and lowlands with lithosols and shallow texture contrast soils of low to moderate fertility. Includes low to high grade metamorphics suck as shales, slates, gneisses of indeterminate origin, and minor areas of associated serpentinite.

10

ranges & plateaus; coarse textured sedimentary rock & soils

sandstone ranges

Mingela bluff

usually undulating landscapes on coarser grained sedimentary rock (largely undeformed) with coarser textured low fertility soils

Cainozoic to Proterozoic consolidated, medium to coarse grained sediments with little or no deformation. Includes siliceous sandstones and conglomerates forming ranges, plateaus and scarps with shallow soils of low fertility. Minor interbedded volcanics may occur. Excludes overlying Cainozoic cand deposits (land zone 5), but includes in situ earths and texture contrast soils. Also includes springs associated with these sediments.

8

basalt plains and scarps

basalt plains

Basalt Wall

basalt plains and scarps, with directly associated fertile black soils

Cainozoic igneous rocks, including extrusive and intrusive types. Predominantly flood bassalts forming extensive plains and occasional low scarps, but including hills, cones and plugs on trachytes and rhyolites, and minor interbedded sediments. These igneous rocks have diverse origins such as flows, pyroclastics, plugs and dykes. Associated soils include black earths, krasnozems, shallow clays and lithosols of generally moderate to high fertility. Excludes alluvial soils derived from these rocks. As well as springs (land zone 3), but includes associated talus.

7

mesas and scarps

inland mesas

mesas, scarps; various rock types; usually skeletal soils with coarse soils on colluvial fans and red earths on plateau margins

Cainozoic duricrusts formed on a variety of rock types. Includes ferruginous, silicaceous and mottled horizons and associated talus and colluvium. Usually low mesas and scarps, or low stony rises on downs. Soils are usually skeletal, with shallow texture contrast soils on the adjacent colluvial fans, and shallow red earths on plateau margins and on larger mesas.

6

inland dunes

not used here

Caonozoic inland dunefields, interdune areas and degraded dunefields. Excludes alluvial systems (land zone 3) which may traverse this zone. Soils are predominantly sands and earths, with clay soils in some interdune areas.

5

near level sands

sand plains

Cainozoic sand deposits, usually forming extensive uniform, near level or gently undulating plains. Soils are usually sands, earths or texture contrast and often overlie laterite profiles.

Cainozoic sand deposits, usually forming extensive uniform, near level or gently undulating plains. Includes slightly dissected surfaces and small remnants of these surfaces. Soils are usually sands, earths or texture contrast and often overlie laterite profiles. Includes extensive sand plains of uncertain origin overlying weathered or unweathered bedrock. Excludes alluvial deposits (land zone 3), exposed duricrust (land zone 7), and shallow soils derived from underlying bedrock.

4

fertile deep cracking clays

not used here

Cainozoic clay deposits, usually forming gently undulating plains with poorly developed drainage systems. Deep cracking clays of moderate to high fertility, often with gilgai microrelief, and texture contrast soils. Excludes clay plains and down formed on older bedrock

 

 

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