Dry Tropics Biodiversity Group Inc.

(inform, educate, enthuse, implement)

Townsville Region Plant Hot Spots, symbols, explanations, references

Townsville Region Plant Hot Spots: by Russell Cumming and Doug Silke, copyright 17/4/99

Hot Spot abbreviations | rare and protected plant symbols | exotic symbol |
plant form symbols.. e.g. tree/shrubs | reference abbreviations | references |
species reliability symbols |

species included | region boundaries | common names | family order | plant name authority | plant name format

Species included:

 Includes: local natives and naturalised species, all spreading and propagating naturally, not revegetation or plants whose seed was introduced directly by man.

Region boundaries: to top | to "Hot Spots" general page

Townsville Thuringowa Council Boundaries: Western Boundary: along the top of the range from Paluma to Reid River, bounded approximately by the watershed line. Except a limited list of some plants west of Paluma Township is included. Eastern Boundary: Crystal Creek to Cape Cleveland and on to Cromarty Siding and the edge of Mt. Elliott. Includes Magnetic Island, Rattlesnake Islands, and all of Mt Elliott, except some plants only are included from the more southern coastal areas of Bowling Green Bay National Park.

Common Names

The main common name field is useful, but the best common name has not always been chosen

Family order:

  Lists in Family order help group similar plants together (believe it or not it can help) e.g. grasses, plants with pod like fruits.

The plant name authority

 "Queensland Plants names and distributions" Queensland Herbarium, 1997. We have been unable to find out the names of about 20 species not in that reference. As yet we have not updated names to the latest edition by the Queensland Herbarium. Where we prefer not to use the current name (e.g. Corymbia) it is listed as an "alternative name". There are very few of these.

Local plant name format: to top | to "Hot Spots" general page | home

 Botany is a moving feast... sometimes we use locally invented names: some species are not yet identified; work needs to be done in many genera to better distinguish species. If classifying botanists were not familiar with local material it may fit in between species; recognised plant names seem inadequate, at least for now until more is learned; the Herbarium sends back data that conflicts with previous submissions

When fairly sure, the closest recognised plant name is often used, often with the understanding that the species need more botanical work to better describe species. Otherwise the format for local names is:

- "Genus sp. (location where seen, brief description, pressed specimen collected by, specimen no.)"
e.g. Bidens sp. (Paradise Bay finely lobed leaves Silke 2789)
e.g. Galactica sp. (Cape Cleveland Cumming)
e.g. Agave sp. (sisalana or vivipara) ... not sure which of the two species listed
e.g. Hovea longifolia complex .. contains more than one apparently indistinguishable species
e.g. Jasminum simplicifolium (narrow leaf) ... an unofficial locally noticed form of this species

The text "nov." is added where a rank will probably be formally recognised in the future
e.g. Acacia excelsa subsp. nov. (green) ... probably warrants "subspecies" rank
e.g. Acacia sp. nov. (rainforest) aff. Acacia aulacocarpa .. The text "aff." means that the unnamed species has close affinities with Acacia aulacocarpa. (the proposed name "Acacia celsa" has actually been listed as an alternative name for this species.

Where the genus is unknown, the genus is written as: "Gen. (Myrtaceae)" etc. followed by a description:
e.g. Gen. (unknown dicot) sp. (Paluma arching veins finely toothed Silke 2976)

Note that the "...sp. (indet.)" name form is usually only valuable where no other species is listed ... generally these represent incomplete ID's that in fact would be one of the other listed species.
e.g. Gahnia sp. (indet.)
e.g. Gen. (unknown monocot) sp. (indet.)

The long names aid memory and the use of computers means that they seldom need to be typed in full.

Identification credit for names containing collection numbers belonging to "Silke" mostly still belongs to DEH botanist Russell Cumming.

Name reliability symbols: to top | to "Hot Spots" general page

The reliability of a few identifications is not always shown, occasionally doubt is shown as follows:
- Merremia quinata? ... species uncertain or species thought perhaps misidentified
- ?Rhodamnia sessiliflora ... genus uncertain, or genus thought perhaps misidentified
- ?Viola hederacea subsp. hederacea? ... genus and species or subspecies are uncertain or thought perhaps misidentified
??Malaxis latifolia ... genus is quite unlikely to be correct, probably misidentified

Hot spot abbreviations:

BaldRk = Bald Rock, QuarStn = Quarantine Station Graves Track, AlligCk = Mt. Elliott Alligator Creek picnic area, MtStu = Mt. Stuart summit, PalumaRnF = Paluma rainforest "H" Trail, PalumaW = west of Paluma at Running River, SndrsBch = Saunders Beach old dune coastal closed forest

Hervey Range Rangeview Ranch is not cross referenced in the text, no abbrev is used.

Rare and threatened, protected plant symbols: to top |
to "Hot Spots" general page

RE restricted plant Propagators must tag these plants with their DEH propagators number and keep evidence that propagating material is sourced from either cultivated plants, or from licensed harvesters from the wild.

RE,F restricted plant, cut Removal of plant material from the wild (for the cut flower market) must be flowers/foliage only licensed.

C common "RE" will also be shown; although commonly occurring, species is protected from unauthorised collection of seed/propagation material

K probably rare species that are suspected, but definitely not known, to belong to any of the other restricted species categories. At present accurate field distribution information is inadequate.

R rare Rare in Australia. Not currently considered endangered or vulnerable. Existing in relatively large populations in a relatively restricted area, or by smaller populations spread over a wider range, or an intermediate distribution range.

V vulnerable Species not presently endangered, but at risk over a longer period through continued depletion, or occurring on sites likely to experience land use change that may threaten survival in the wild

E endangered Species at serious risk of disappearing from the wild state within 10-20 years if present land use and other causal factors continue. Includes species with possibly too small a population to survive even if in a declared reserve.

X presumed extinct Species presumed extinct. Either not found in recent years despite thorough searching or have not been collected for at least 50 years and were known only from now well settled areas


Exotic symbol: An asterisk "*" before the botanical name indicates exotic to Queensland, note that Australian plants can be marked exotic.

 Plant Form Codes to top | to "Hot Spots" general page

 Plant Form codes have not been well checked, but are usually useful

submerged aquatic
emergent aquatic
usually cannot live out of water as a boggy plant for long
boggy plant permanently wet boggy, can be emergent aquatic sometimes

mistletoe (& epiphytes not fern or orchid)
epiphyte (not fern or orchid)
includes lithophyte, not orchids
not tufty
sedge includes rushes
terrestrial orchid
orchid/epiph. epiphytic orchid, includes lithophyte
woody prostrate, see "climbers" for trailing plants
very small herb
mid-high herb 0.3m - 0.8m
tall herb >0.8m
very small fern
mid-high fern 0.3m - 0.8m
tall fern >0.8m
epiphytic fern includes lithophytes on rocks
tree fern
subshrub - woody
<0.5m, not herbs with softer usually green stems (e.g like many weeds)
small shrub - woody 0.5-1.2m, includes saplings, not herbs with softer usually green stems (e.g like many weeds)
med. shrub - woody 1.2-3m, includes saplings, not herbs with softer usually green stems (e.g like many weeds)
tall shrub 3-6m, includes saplings
tall shrub/small tree 3-6m, includes saplings
small tree
med. tree 10-18m
med/tall tree 18-25m
tall tree 25-35 m
very tall tree >35m
trailing plant
does not climb
grass twiner only twines on grasses or herbs
root climber
climber, not woody
climber, not woody
woody climber
smaller palm
tall palm >6m;
cycads, grass trees
grass trees
cycas spp, lepidozamia spp, macrozamia spp.

Reference abbreviations

 DryT = Townsend 1997 "Plants of the Dry Tropics"; MagIs = Jackes 1987 "Plants of Magnetic Island" PRnF = Jackes 1991 "Plants of the Tropical Rainforest"

References to top | to "Hot Spots" general page

 Anderson Eric; and others; 1996; SGAP Qld Conf. Sept 1996, plant lists
 Bean, A. R.; 1992; Bowling Green Bay National Park Resource Inventory (extracts)
 Brooker & Kleinig; 1994; Field Guide Eucalypts of Northern Aust. 3
 Bureau of Flora & Fauna ; 1989; Flora of Australia - Vol 03
 Bureau of Flora & Fauna; 1995; Flora of Australia - Vol 16, Eleagnaceae, Proteaceae 1
 Calvert, Greg; SGAP Townsville; verbally
 Cooper; 1994; Fruits of the Rainforest
 Elliot & Jones; 1980; Encyclopaedia of Aust. Plants for Cultivation - 1
 Elliot & Jones; 1982; Encyclopaedia of Aust. Plants for Cultivation - 2
 Elliot & Jones; 1982; Encyclopaedia of Aust. Plants for Cultivation - 4
 Elliot & Jones; 1984; Encyclopaedia of Aust. Plants for Cultivation - 3
 Elliot & Jones; 1993; Encyclopaedia of Aust. Plants for Cultivation - 6
 Elliot,W.R;Jones,D.L.; 1997; Encyclopaedia of Australian Plants Vol 7, N-Po
 Environment Central Coast, Dept of; 1994; Port Curtis Plants
 Forestry, Dept of, Qld; Timber resrch & Ext'n Branch, Indooroopilly.; Unknown; Timber Samples, Samples of timbers available in Qld.
 Hacker; 1990; Guide to Herbaceous & Shrub Legumes - Qld
 Hopley, D; 1970; Monograph series No. 1; The Geomorphology of the Burdekin Delta, North Queensland
 Jackes, B.R.; 1991; Plants of the Tropical Rainforest
 Jackes, B.R.; verbally
 Jackes,B; and students; 8/97; A Guide to the trees of the H Track Rainforest Walk, Paluma
 Jackes; 1987; Plants of Magnetic Island
 Jackes; 1996; Guide to Plants of the Burra Ranges
 Jones & Clemesha; Australian Ferns and Fern Allies
 Jones & Gray; 1988; Climbing Plants in Australia
 Jones,D. L.; Native Orchids of Australia
 Lands Dept.; 1995; PestFact: Declared Plants of Qld.
 Lokkers,Con; 1997
 Morley & Toelken; 1983; Flowering Plants in Australia
 Olde,P; Marriott, N.; 1995; The Grevillea Book Vol 2
 QDEH; 1992; Nature Conservation Act - Section Guide
 Qld Herbarium; 1994; Queensland Vascular Plants
 QueenslandHerbarium; 1997; Queensland Plants, names and distributions
 Simmons; Acacias of Australia Vol 1
 Skull,S.; 1995; Plants of the Melaleuca Woodlands
 Staff of Hortorium, Cornell University; 1976; Hortus Third
 Stanley,T.D;Ross,E.M.; 1983; Flora of South Eastern Queensland, vol 1
 Stanley,T.D;Ross,E.M.; 1986; Flora of South Eastern Queensland, vol 2
 Stanley,T.D;Ross,E.M.; 1989; Flora of South Eastern Queensland, vol 3
 Stevens,N.C.; 1972; G19 Geology and Landscape of Queensland, National Science Curriculum Materials Project.
 Townsend, K; 1994; Across the Top, Gardening with Australian Plants in the Tropics
 Townsend,K; 1997; Plants of the Dry Tropics
 Trezise, D.L;Stephenson,P.J.; 1990; Rocks and Landscapes of the Townsville District
 VickersRich,P;HewittRich,T; 1993; Wildlife of Gondwana
 Webb, A., Dept of Zoology, Jame Cook University; Nature Search, Fish and Plant Species list for the Ross River weirs
 Wheeler,J.R (Editor);Rye,B.L.;Koch,B.L.;Wilson,A.J.G.; 1992; Flora of the Kimberley Region
 White,M.E.; The Greening Of Gondwana
 Wrigley & Fagg; 1992; Australian Native Plants - 3rd Edition
 Wrigley,J.W; Fagg, M.; 1993; Bottlebrushes Paperbarks & teatrees
 Wyatt,D.H.; 1972; 1:250,000 Geological Series and notes; Townsville

 to top | to "Hot Spots" general page

 Townsville Region Plant Hot Spots: by Russell Cumming and Doug Silke, 17/4/99